The OSCE participating States, information, information system, operational investigative activities, police activities based on operational data and information, information and analytical support for the activities of operational units.
The article considers the organization of information and analytical support of state bodies of the Russian Federation and OSCE participating States authorized to carry out operational investigative activities. The analysis of this work in the Russian Federation and the countries – participants of the OSCE, the advantages and disadvantages of the models used in Russia and the OSCE countries. It is emphasized that in the Russian Federation a platform for the system of information and analytical support for law enforcement activity already exists, a model has been developed for combining information files of various agencies (an interdepartmental integrated data bank of operational investigative purposes). Unresolved are the issues of combining departmental information systems, as well as the training of highly professional analysts to work in a single information system.
In the conditions of the development of society and the digital economy, the process of evolution of the forms and methods of criminal activity also occurs, which imposes on law enforcement agencies the obligation to timely respond to these changes. Today, the serious difficulties that traditional models of law enforcement in the Russian Federation and other countries, based mostly on responding to the facts that have already occurred, are obvious. The reasons for the change and mobility of criminal activity are factors such as increased mobility of the population, migration processes, the rapid development of information and telecommunication technologies, the free cross-border movement of goods and services, as well as growing income inequality. These reasons give rise to illegal behavior not only among those who have previously committed crimes, but also among law-abiding persons. Aggressive extremism and radicalization leading to terrorism, as well as terrorist acts of recent years, necessitate active information exchange, integration and centralized analysis of relevant data and information (operational materials) at all levels, taking into account the requirements of national legislation and international standards in the field of human rights observance [1 , with. 7-13].
Information and operational data are key factors in creating a competitive advantage in private business and in the business community as a whole. In this regard, law enforcement agencies are no different from commercial organizations, since strategic advantages based on information, knowledge and operational data increase the effectiveness of law enforcement agencies in preventing incidents and improving security, as well as suppressing the activities of criminal groups and networks. But to possess information, knowledge and operational data is not enough. To manage operational data and maximize its use, an appropriate structure or model is needed, as well as for collecting, processing and using data and information in strict accordance with national standards.
laws and international human rights standards.
In the Russian Federation, information support for the activities of the investigative bodies is a set of measures for the formation, maintenance, use and improvement of information systems, which is aimed at providing the operational units with the necessary information in the form of systematized information necessary for them to carry out the tasks and functions assigned to them [ 2, s. 87-99].
Information entering the operational divisions of the internal affairs bodies and used by them is classified according to a variety of different signs. As a rule, it is divided into the following types: operational-investigative, operational-inquiry, forensic, statistical or management, scientific-technical, etc. Operational-investigative information is the factual information obtained by the subject of operational-investigative activity, containing the knowledge necessary and suitable for the prevention and disclosure of crime, investigative work and other tasks of combating crime. Operational and investigative information is a type of social information specific to the purpose (crime control), methods of obtaining and mode of use, providing conspiracy, reliable encryption of sources, the ability to verify the reported information and their use only by interested employees. Operational reference information is a type of information where objects, as a rule, have a causal relationship with a crime event, have externally obvious, visually perceptible registration signs [3, p. 60-66]. Forensic information is systematic information about people, corpses, methods and means of committing crimes, stolen things, traces and physical evidence, as well as other objects relevant to the investigation of crimes. Statistical information is the primary material formed in the process of research or observation, which is subsequently systematized, summarized and analyzed. Management information is a set of facts that can be useful in the development and implementation of management decisions. Scientific and technical information – documented information arising from scientific and technological development, as well as information needed by managers, scientific, engineering and technical workers in the course of their activities, including specialized economic and regulatory information.
For informational support of operational subdivisions of bodies carrying out operational investigative activities (hereinafter – OSA), special information systems are created, formed and used. Each law-enforcement agency forms its own information and information-analytical system, which has both certain advantages and disadvantages. In particular, the disadvantage is the closeness of information available to one individual operational investigative body for other operational devices. It should be emphasized that in order to achieve the highest possible results of the activity of a body, including the internal affairs bodies, the information support of the OSA should not be limited solely to intradepartmental information files. The use by operatively-search bodies of information capabilities of other agencies requires additional agreements, time and money, which does not quite meet modern requirements for the growth of public demand for financial efficiency, which implies following the rule “do more with a lower price” [4, p. 167-169].
Thus, it should be recognized that the Russian system of information support for the activities of the investigative agencies is not very rational. More effective is the system used by the States Parties to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (hereinafter – the OSCE). They practice such a form of law enforcement work as policing on the basis of operational data and information (hereinafter referred to as PODI). Its concept was developed by the UK Home Office in 1993 in order to counter organized crime, and after the tragic events of September 11, 2001, it was adopted by the US law enforcement agencies as a methodological basis for combating terrorism. PDODI was developed as a response to the increasing threats from crime.
This form focuses on the systematic collection and evaluation of data and information through a clearly defined analytical procedure, with the result that data becomes strategic and operational analytical products that serve as the basis for improving the process of making informed decisions supported by factual data. PODI builds a structure for managing operational information about criminal activity and planned operational work, in which operational data is the basis for determining priorities, strategic and operational objectives for the prevention and suppression of crime and other security threats. It also includes the adoption of relevant decisions in the framework of the implementation of the OSA, the rational involvement of existing human resources and the distribution of material and technical means. The PODI complements the traditional law enforcement model based on the response. PDODI is a hierarchical management decision-making model, although the exchange of data and information within its framework works both from the bottom up and from the top down. On the contrary, police activities based on interaction with the public represent a typical bottom-up approach aimed at building trust between the police and the public. The law enforcement activity according to the PDODI model was reoriented from the traditional response to the events that happened to their anticipation. The preventive and future-oriented approach of Western law enforcement structures, embodied in the PDODI, according to its developers, is aimed at preventing, reducing, disrupting and eliminating crime. At the heart of this model of activity is the development by management of the police apparatus of optimal management decisions and an immediate response to the complication of the operational environment. For this purpose, a systematic collection and analysis of information and data related to the prevention, reduction and elimination of crime, on the basis of which timely management decisions are developed, is organized in real time.
The OSCE Guidebook on Intelligence-Led Policing; hereinafter referred to as the Guide, emphasizes the importance and necessity of prioritizing rankings based on operational data, with further goal setting and allocation of available funds. The Guide includes clear descriptions of specific operating mechanisms based on operational data and information, decision-making procedures and organizational structures at the local, regional and national levels. That is, this document not only presents the conceptual model of the PODI, but also offers practical tools for its implementation. It is a daily practice of policing, proactive strategic planning and operational action, as well as tools to combat professional and organized crime. In addition, the Guide explains how the PDODI can greatly complement the interaction of the police with the population, being an effective tool to counter terrorism, aggressive extremism and radicalization. The analysis of operational data is of greater importance in the frame of the PODI, unlike other modern models of policing. Its implementation requires advanced, and sometimes new analytical knowledge and skills from law enforcement officers. The proactive and promising method of PDODI also relies on the knowledge of the heads of law enforcement agencies of the specifics of working with expert analysts and the use of analytical materials in decision-making and planning. Therefore, when implementing the PDODI model, it is necessary to pay special attention to the training and education of senior and middle level law enforcement and management personnel.
According to Western colleagues, the EAPPDI model includes clear organizational and management structures, including decision-making and task-setting mechanisms at the local, regional, and national levels, as well as procedures for interaction and communication between law enforcement agencies at the local level and within international cooperation. More efficient data and information management is an important advantage for PDODI for modern law enforcement agencies. Currently, when there is a cardinal increase in information flows, the TDSAI model offers a method for targeted collection of necessary data and information in accordance with clearly defined policies, strategies, goals and priorities.
A characteristic feature of this approach is the functioning in each country of a single centralized national department for operational data (hereinafter – NDOD), which must be staffed with representatives of various law enforcement and other government agencies (border guard, correctional system, customs, financial intelligence, coast guard / maritime police , intelligence and security services, police, tax authorities, specialized law enforcement, etc.). A NDOD officer should have access to the data and information of the body they represent and be eligible to exchange information with representatives of other interested bodies represented in the NDOD.
The PDODI Guidelines specifically state the need to use interdependent, compatible, or single-platform IT structures at the national level that support the PDODI, to create appropriate protection mechanisms in accordance with official decisions and standard operating procedures. Apart from the fact that, in our opinion, it is of no small importance, issues related to the preparation and training of analysts are raised here. Emphasis is placed on the development of their skills in the field of strategic and tactical (operational) analysis, the development of substantiated conclusions based on it, the interpretation of analytical results and their presentation in the form of analytical reports. According to the developers of PDODI, with such an organization of information and analytical work, sound and promising political and managerial measures can be taken, and appropriate resources are allocated for these purposes, focused on solving the most pressing problems of ensuring public safety. In this regard, for example, Germany during its chairmanship in the OSCE in 2016, Austria (chaired the OSCE in 2017), as well as the OSCE Secretary General expressed serious interest in further promoting the concept of PDODI and provided all possible support to this process. .
In conclusion, I would like to note that in the Russian Federation there is already a platform for such a system of information and analytical support for law enforcement. The possibilities of combining information files of various departments into a single information system are reflected in the work of a number of scientists, including Professor E.N. Yakovets, who proposed a model of an interdepartmental integrated data bank for operational and investigative purposes (IDB ORN) [5, p. 69]. Unresolved were only the issues of integrating the information systems of departments into a single structure, as well as the training of highly professional analysts to work with such a system.
1. Denisov V.V., Yakovets E.N. Organization of information and analytical support for the operational-search activity of the internal affairs bodies // Study Guide. M .: Academy of Management of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 2017. 256 p.
2. Yakovets E.N. Problems of analytical and operational-search activity of the internal affairs bodies: Monograph. M .: Publishing house Shumilova II, 2005. 219 p.
3. Kuznetsov I.N. Tutorial on information and analytical work. M., 2001.
4. Sargsyan G.G. Information support of the activities of the operational units of the internal affairs bodies // Proceedings of the Academy of Management of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. 2018. No. 2 (46). Pp. 167-169.
5. Yakovets E.N. The ratio of “police work on the basis of operational data and information” practiced by OSCE participating States and domestic operational-search analysis // Operative Journal (detective). 2018. No. 3 (56). P. 64-69.
Source: Scientific-theoretical journal “Bulletin of the Kaliningrad branch of the St. Petersburg University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia”. No. 1 (55) 2019.