4. Selected areas of protection

Handbook on European non-discrimination lawContents

EU Issues covered CoE
TFEU, Art. 157 Employment ECHR, Art. 14 (prohibition of discrimination)

ECtHR, I.B. v. Greece, No. 552/10, 2013

ECtHR, Danilenkov and Others v. Russia, No. 67336/01, 2009

Racial Equality Directive

(2000/43/EC), Art. 3 (1) (a)

Employment Equality Directive

(2000/78/EC), Art. 3 (1) (a)

Gender Equality Directive (recast) (2006/54/EC), Art. 1,

Art. 14 (1) (a)

Council Directive (2003/109/EC),

Art. 11 (1) (a)

CJEU, C-548/15, de Lange v. Staatssecretaris van Financiën,

2016

CJEU, C-122/15, C., 2016
CJEU, C-267/12, Hay v. Crédit

agricole mutuel, 2013

CJEU, C-81/12, Asociaţia Accept

v. Consiliul Naţional pentru

Combaterea Discriminării, 2013

CJEU, C-7/12, Riežniece v. Zemkopības ministrija and

Lauku atbalsta dienests, 2013

CJEU, C-147/08, Römer v. Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg [GC],

2011

CJEU, C-79/99, Schnorbus v.

Land Hessen, 2000

CJEU, C-116/94, Meyers v.

Adjudication Officer, 1995

TFEU, Art. 18

Racial Equality Directive

(2000/43/EC)

Welfare and social security ECHR, Art. 8 (right to respect for private and family life), Art. 14 (prohibition of discrimination), Protocol No. 1, Art. 1 (Protection of property)

ECtHR, Gouri v. France (dec.), No. 41069/11, 2017

ECtHR, Bah v. the United Kingdom, No. 56328/07, 2011

ECtHR, Stummer v. Austria [GC], No. 37452/02, 2011

ECtHR, Andrle v. the Czech Republic, No. 6268/08, 2011

Gender Equality Directive

(recast) (2006/54/EC)

Council Directive (2003/109/EC),

Art. 11 (1) (d)

CJEU, C-299/14, Vestische Arbeit Jobcenter Kreis Recklinghausen

v. García-Nieto, 2016

CJEU, C-318/13, X., 2014
CJEU, C-20/12, Giersch v. État du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg,

2013

CJEU, Case 32/75, Cristini v.

SNCF, 1975

TFEU, Art. 18 Education ECHR, Art. 8 (right to respect for private and family life), Art. 14 (prohibition of discrimination), Protocol No. 1, Art. 1 (Protection of property)

ECtHR, Çam v. Turkey, No. 51500/08, 2016

ECtHR, Ponomaryovi v. Bulgaria, No. 5335/05, 2011

Regulation on freedom of
movement of workers within
the Community (1612/68),
Art. 12
Racial Equality Directive
(2000/43/EC), Art. 3 (1) (g)
Council Directive (2003/109/EC),
Art. 11 (1) (b)
CJEU, C-491/13, Ben Alaya v.
Bundesrepublik Deutschland,
2014
CJEU, Joined cases C-523/11
and C-585/11, Prinz v. Region
Hannover and Seeberger v.
Studentenwerk Heidelberg,
2013
CJEU, C-147/03, Commission of
the European Communities v.
Republic of Austria, 2005
CJEU, Case 9/74, Casagrande v.
Landeshauptstadt München,
1974
Racial Equality Directive (2000/43/EC)

Gender Goods and Services Directive, Paragraph 13 of the

Preamble

Access to supply of goods and services, including housing ECHR, Art. 3 (prohibition of torture), Art. 8 (right to respect for private and family life),

and Art. 14 (prohibition of discrimination), Protocol No. 1, Art. 1 (Protection of property)

ESC (Revised), Art. E, Art. 13 (4), and 31 (1)

ECtHR, Hunde v. the Netherlands

(dec.), No. 17931/16, 2016

ECtHR, Vrountou v. Cyprus, No. 33631/06, 2015

ECtHR, Moldovan and Others v. Romania (No. 2), Nos. 41138/98 and 64320/01, 2005

ECSR, CEC v. the Netherlands, No. 90/2013, 2014

ECSR, FEANTSA v. the

Netherlands, No. 86/2012, 2014

Treaty on the Functioning of

the European Union, Art. 57

Racial Equality Directive

(2000/43/EC), Art. 3 (1) (h)

Charter of Fundamental Rights,

Art. 7, Art. 34 (3)

Council Directive (2003/109/EC),

Art. 11 (1) (f)

CJEU, C-83/14, “CHEZ

Razpredelenie  Bulgaria” AD v. Komisia za zashtita ot

diskriminatsia [GC], 2015

CJEU, C-571/10, Kamberaj v.

IPES [GC], 2012

Charter of Fundamental Rights, Art. 47 Access to justice ECHR, Art. 6 (right to fair trial)

ECtHR, Paraskeva Todorova v. Bulgaria, No. 37193/07, 2010

ECtHR, Anakomba Yula v. Belgium, No. 45413/07, 2009
ECtHR, Moldovan and Others v. Romania (No. 2), Nos. 41138/98

and 64320/01, 2005

Charter of Fundamental Rights, Art. 7

CJEU, C-391/09, Runevič-Vardyn and Wardyn v. Vilniaus miesto savivaldybės administracija,

2011

Right for respect of private and family life ECHR, Art. 8 (right to respect for private and family life), Art. 12 (right to marry) and Art. 14 (prohibition of discrimination)

ECtHR, Kacper Nowakowski v. Poland, No. 32407/13, 2017

CJEU, C-104/09, Roca Álvarez v. Sesa Start España ETT SA, 2010 ECtHR, A.H. and Others v. Russia, Nos. 6033/13 and 15 other applications, 2017
ECtHR, Pajić v. Croatia, No. 68453/13, 2016
ECtHR, Vallianatos and Others v. Greece [GC], Nos. 29381/09 and 32684/09, 2013
ECtHR, X and Others v. Austria

[GC], No. 19010/07, 2013

Charter of Fundamental Rights, Art. 12 Political participation ECHR, Art. 10 (freedom of expression), Art. 11 (freedom of assembly and association), Protocol No. 1, Art. 3 (Right to free elections)

ECtHR, Pilav v. Bosnia and Herzegovina, No. 41939/07, 2016

ECtHR, Partei Die Friesen v.

Germany, No. 65480/10, 2016

Charter of Fundamental Rights, Art. 21

TFEU, Art 18 and 21

CJEU, C-182/15, Petruhhin

v. Latvijas Republikas Ģenerālprokuratūra [GC], 2016 CJEU, C-42/11, Proceedings

concerning the execution of

a European arrest warrant issued against João Pedro Lopes Da Silva Jorge [GC], 2012

Criminal law matters ECHR, Art. 2 (right to life), Art. 3 (prohibition of torture), Art. 5, Art. 6 (right to fair trial), Art. 7 (No punishment without law) and Protocol No. 7, Art. 4 (Right not to be tried or punished twice)

ECtHR, Martzaklis and Others v. Greece, No. 20378/13, 2015

ECtHR, Stasi v. France, No. 25001/07, 2011

ECtHR, D.G. v. Ireland, No. 39474/98, 2002

ECtHR, Bouamar v. Belgium,

No. 9106/80, 1988

Key point

  • The scope of the ECHR is much wider than the EU non-discrimination directives – both in terms of the substantive rights and the manner that these are interpreted for the purposes of applying Article 14 of the Convention.

While European non-discrimination law prohibits direct and indirect discrimination, it does so only in certain contexts.

Article 14 of the ECHR applies in relation to the enjoyment of all substantive rights guaranteed by the ECHR, and Protocol No. 12 to the ECHR covers any right which is guaranteed at the national level, even where this does not fall within the scope of an ECHR right. Whereas the scope of the prohibition on discrimination under EU non-discrimination directives extends to three areas: employment, the welfare system, and goods and services. Currently, as discussed in Chapter 1, only the Racial Equality Directive applies to all three areas. While legislation which will extend the Employment Equality Directive to all three areas is under discussion, this directive currently only applies to the context of employment. The Gender Equality Directive (recast) and the Gender Goods and Services Directive apply to the context of employment and access to goods and services but not to access to the welfare system.

This chapter will set out the scope of application of European non-discrimination law. In particular, it will examine substantive areas of protection covered.

Contents

4. Selected areas of protection

4.1. Employment

4.2. Access to welfare and social security

4.3. Education

4.4. Access to supply of goods and services, including housing

4.5. Access to justice

4.6. The ‘personal’ sphere: private and family life, adoption, home and marriage

4.7. Political participation: freedom of expression, assembly and association, and free elections

4.8. Criminal law matters

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